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Acinus - set of milk-producing cells

Alopecia – hair loss

Anorexia - loss of appetite

Monoclonal Antibodies: These are proteins designed to attack a very specific part of a cancer cell.

Antiperspirants: deodorants that can prevent perspiration.

Areola - central structure of the breast where the papilla projects

Breast self-examination: how women check their breasts for changes. Doctors and nurses can teach women how to do this.

Benign - quality of a nodule or tumor that is not cancerous or invades neighboring or distant organs

Biopsy - tissue removal for microscopic examination and diagnosis

Cancer - group of diseases in which malignant cells grow out of control and compromise other organs

Candidiasis - ringworm caused by candida albicans

Carcinogenesis - process of transformation of benign into malignant cells under the action of physical, chemical or biological agents

Cell: All living things, from plants to animals, are made up of tiny cells.

Conservative surgery: removing a tumor mass and a part of the breast, but not the entire breast.

Collagen - natural fiber that supports tissues

Dermatitis - any inflammatory process of the skin

Diagnosis: detection of a pathology

Dysplasia - breast tissue disarrangement

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid is an organic compound whose molecules contain the genetic instructions that coordinate the development and functioning of all living beings and some viruses, and which transmit the hereditary characteristics of each living being

Estrogen receptor assay - test to determine if breast cancer contains estrogen receptor protein

Main ducts – carry secretion (milk) to the papilla; are in number from 15 to 20

Eczema - desquamative cutaneous inflammatory process

Edema - accumulation of fluid in some part of the body

Side Effects: Undesired effects that happen because of the treatment, such as hair loss from chemotherapy or tiredness caused by radiation therapy.

Endometrium - tissue that lines the uterine cavity internally

Epithelium or epithelial tissue is one of the four types of basic tissues in the human body - the others are connective, muscular and nervous tissue. Epithelial cells line the organs and can, in some cases, form glands.

Staging - determines the extent of the disease in the body

Estrogen and Progesterone - female hormones produced by the ovaries

Stroma - loose tissue that surrounds the lobes and breast ducts

Etiology - causal agent

Cytological examination - microscopic analysis of cells

Freezing examination - technique in which the removed tissue is frozen and quickly examined under the microscope by the pathologist

Exogenous - external, produced outside the body

expression - compression

Fatigue: feeling tired caused by cancer treatment, different from the feeling of not having enough sleep. It's as if your brain, body and emotions are tired. It is the most common side effect of cancer treatment.

Fascia - fibrous tissue that covers structures

Environmental factors – are non-genetic factors that affect our body. Examples are viruses, toxins, pollutants, smoking, drugs and diet

Risk factors - any factor that increases the chance that a person will have a disease

Prognostic factors - evaluated factors that suggest the severity of the disease and the possibility of cure

Folliculitis - inflammatory process of the hair (hair follicle)

Gene – located in the nuclei of cells and contains all the information inherited from our parents. We inherit half of the genes from the mother and the other half from the father

Adrenal gland - two small hormone-releasing glands located in the upper pole of the kidneys

Grade of Cancer: Breast cancer has a grade of 1 to 3, with 1 being the least severe and 3 the most serious. These numbers represent your body's degree of commitment to cancer.

HER-2 - Also known as c-erb-2 is an oncogene that may be increased in some tumors and represents a worse prognosis

Herceptin – Trastuzumab is a human hormone antibody specific for HER-2 positive tumors

Hyperplasia - disordered tissue growth

Low calorie - low calorie

Hormone – substance that regulates growth, metabolism and reproduction; is secreted by glands

Breast implant: A pad filled with saline water or silicone gel, shaped like your breast, placed under the skin where the breast tissue has been removed.

Immunosuppression - depression of the immune system

In situ - no invasion, restricted to the breast duct

Aromatase Inhibitor - a class of hormonal drugs that block estrogen synthesis in postmenopausal women

Lymphedema - swelling and dilation of obstructed lymphatic vessels

Sentinel lymph node - first tumor draining lymph node

Lymph nodes - lymph nodes that participate in the body's defense system

Mammary lobe - set of acini and small ducts

Mammography: image of the breast using x-rays.

Mastectomy: removal of one or both breasts (in this case called a double mastectomy).

Mastitis - inflammatory process of the breasts

Mastologist - doctor specializing in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant breast diseases

Menopause: when a woman stops menstruating and her body stops making hormones.

Metastasis: when cancer cells detach from the area where they were generated and spread to other regions of the body.

Microcalcification - calcium deposit in breast tissue

mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin): is a protein with a central role in the growth, proliferation and maintenance of cells, which participates in the formation of two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2

Mutation - change, differentiation

Nausea: feeling sick and wanting to vomit.

Neoplasm - tissue that has undergone benign or malignant transformation

Neurotransmitter - substance responsible for transmissions in the nervous system

Oncologist - physician specializing in the clinical treatment of cancer

Papilla - elastic bulge where the breast ducts flow

Parenchyma - mammary tree or mammary gland tissue

Pathologist - doctor specializing in examining tissues and fluids under the microscope to give a definitive diagnosis

Penetrance It is defined as the percentage of individuals with a certain genotype that express the corresponding phenotype.

Flap procedure: breast reconstruction, in which a doctor uses tissue from another part of your body to try to reproduce the shape of the breast. The tissue can come from your abdomen, back, hips or buttocks.

Prognosis - disease evolution as expected by the physician

Proliferate - tissue growth

Quadrant - portion corresponding to a quarter of the total breast volume

Chemotherapy: Drugs that kill cancer cells and are delivered into the body through injections or taken as pills. They stop the process of cell growth and division when they are inside the body.

Radiologist - physician specializing in imaging methods for the diagnosis of diseases

Radio-oncologist - doctor specializing in radiotherapy

Radiotherapy: treatment with special x-rays that kill cancer cells.

Radiotracer - radioactive substance injected to mark breast lesions or the sentinel lymph node

Relapse: cancer that comes back after treatment.

Breast Reconstruction: Surgery that can reconstruct the shape of a woman's breast, including the nipple and areola.

Nipple Reconstruction: A type of breast reconstruction in which tissue for the nipple and areola is taken from the patient's body, usually from the inguinal area, and molded into the shape of a nipple. It can also be done using small flaps of the reconstructed breast skin to form the nipple. Sometimes doctors use the tattoo technique to create the areola and match one nipple to the other.

Regression - tumor shrinkage

Pathology report: A report that explains your type of breast cancer, the size of the tumor and how fast it is growing.

Remission - complete disappearance of signs and symptoms of the disease

ROLL - radioguided surgery for location of occult lesion

Seroma - accumulation of fluid in a closed cavity

Lymphatic system – network that includes lymph nodes, lymph and vessels. Acts as a filter in the body

Supplement: vitamins or minerals that do not come from food, but in pills, for example, and which are taken by the patient to help them cope better with breast cancer.

Tamoxifen - hormonal substance used in the treatment of breast cancer

Tissue - set of cells that perform a specific function

Adipose tissue – the rest of the breast is filled with this fatty tissue; its quantity varies according to the woman's physical characteristics, nutritional status and age

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT): Intake of hormones after you've gone through menopause, when your body stops making hormones.

Hormonal therapy: treatment of cancer with hormones or drugs that interfere with the production or actions of hormones. It is not the same as hormone replacement therapy. Hormone therapy may also include surgery to remove hormone-producing glands. Hormone therapy can kill cancer cells or slow their growth.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), process by which cancer cells, from primary tumors, undergo a phenotypic conversion to invade and migrate, generating metastases in distant tissues or organs

Adjuvant treatment - treatment that aims to treat any micrometastases and determine a greater chance of cure

Palliative treatment - aims to relieve pain and symptoms, but its objective is not to cure the disease

Alternative treatments: therapies or anything that someone claims to be able to cure cancer, when in fact its effectiveness has not been proven.

Tumor: cells that form a lump in your body. Some tumors are cancer and some are not.

Turgency - breast swelling and distension

National and international references

American Cancer Society

American Society of Clinical Oncology www.asco.o rg

European School of Oncology

European Society of Mastology


Global Cancer Observatory

National Cancer Institute

Oncoguia Institute


National Cancer Institute

National Institutes of Health

Senologic International Society

Brazilian Society of Mastology

Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology


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Obrigado por enviar!

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Sorocaba Medical Center


Rua Sorocaba, 464 - room 202

Tel. 21 2537-0138 / 2539-5093

    Second fourth  it's Friday

Americas Medical City

Barra da Tijuca

Av. Jorge Curi, 550 - rooms 252/253

Tel. 21 3264-4866 / 3264-4863

    Tuesday and Thursday

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